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Genesis & Ancient Cosmic Geography

Bible Project

Hey Bible Project followers (or visitors), as we step into a new year and embark on our first week of reading in Read Scripture 2017, we want to introduce this new, weekly blog series. This blog lets us have a little fun and explore certain theological questions that we didn’t have time for in the Read Scripture videos. The blog will coincide with the readings each week and will aim at giving you perspective before you dive in that week. So, without further ado, let’s begin.

Genesis 1 and Biblical Cosmology

The Bible is historically the most well-read, well-circulated, commonly quoted, yet widely-criticized book of all time. There is no shortage of topics to debate, and pages one and two of Genesis have unfortunately been a frontrunner for controversy due to the creation vs. evolution debate. Whichever side of that argument you might agree with, it begins with the interpretation of the book of Genesis, and that sort of makes sense as Genesis comes from a Hebrew word Bereshit, which means “in the beginning.” It’s here we see God set the stage for the Garden of Eden and all that will unfold with Adam and Eve. Nevertheless, before we move onto the Garden and the Fall, there is so much to explore in this first chapter of the first book.

As we read through the entire Bible this year, we think you’ll come to find God has a flare for drama. He reveals himself through burning bushes, elaborate visions, and births himself into the world by a poor, working-class, teenage girl. That said, something God does not seem to typically do when he reveals himself in history, is provide science lessons. We are not saying God couldn’t do such a thing, we are simply saying that, in the Bible, he doesn’t. To put it another way: if you read the Bible in its historical and literary context, you will not find any text in which God updates our understanding of astrophysics or biochemistry. God revealed himself to the people of ancient Israel (the original audience of the Bible), and when he did so, he spoke in terms of their cultural understanding of the cosmos. This simple observation has huge implications for understanding what on earth is happening in Genesis chapter one.

Three Tiered Universe

<em>Our visual representation of this Ancient Cosmic Geography in Genesis 1. Also a sneak-peak from our Heaven and Earth Workbook (coming soon).</em>
Our visual representation of this Ancient Cosmic Geography in Genesis 1. Also a sneak-peak from our Heaven and Earth Workbook (coming soon).

Let’s take a deeper look at how the ancient Israelites understood the division of the sky and the land as a starting point. Modern people think of the earth as a globe spinning around the sun in the vastness of space, but in the ancient world, the Israelites included, people saw things much differently. All throughout the Bible, we find the common ancient view that the cosmos was a three-tiered order, consisting of three distinct realms stacked on top of each other: the skies, or heavens above; the land, surrounded by water; and the waters below.  

The earth was a flat, disc-shaped piece of land floating on deep cosmic waters, which is why if you dig deep enough, you eventually hit water (this is “the deep” in Genesis 1:2), so they believed the land must be suspended, or “floating” above the deep by pillars (you’ve maybe heard the biblical phrase, “pillars of the earth”). The land, surrounded by waters, is where humans and land animals lived, and the waters around the land was “the sea,” where all the sea creatures lived. Ancient Israelites also observed that the sky was a dome shape and that the sun, moon, and stars were embedded into the dome. Above the sky, was more water, which the dome typically held back, but not always, which explained why sometimes it rained.

While the world functioned in the same manner as it does today, their understanding of those functions differed dramatically. Today, we benefit from several thousand more years of scientific discovery and therefore have a larger context for the universe than those in the Ancient Near East.

This week, as you dive into “The Beginning,” we encourage you to read Genesis 1:1 with all this in mind. Remember, it wouldn’t be until 6th century B.C. that Pythagoras would first suggest a round earth, and 16th century A.D. when it would be demonstrated via circumnavigation. Now, this doesn’t mean the Genesis chapter one is “wrong,” it just means that its purpose isn’t to offer a scientific description of the world. What the author is trying to do, is reshape your view of who God is and why he made this strange and wonderful world with us as a part of it. Those questions are the focus on pages one and two of the Bible, and that’s what we explore more in the Read Scripture video on Genesis 1-11.

We hope this is helpful and engaging, and gets you asking some questions you may not have thought of before.

Talk to you next week!

-The Bible Project